Star-badge of Little Octobrist
These stars were given to young schoolchildren when they joined the Little Octobrists (in the Soviet Union). Little Octobrists is a preparatory stage before joining the Pioneer organization. Children became Little Octobrists in the 1st school class. They joined Pioneers in the 3rd one.
Do you remember that before the revolution the icon "The Reigning (or “The Enthroned”) Mother of God" was obtained? The Mother of God is depicted sitting on a throne in a scarlet robe with the boy Christ in her arms very similar to little Lenin depicted on a star-badge of Little Octobrists. Then the phenomenon of this icon was accepted as a witness that now the Heavenly Queen Herself would lead "red" Russia.
Lyudmila Reznik, book "Root Source".